"NQR" redirects here. For
the Tufts University tradition, see
In NMR, nuclei with
Since unlike NMR, NQR is done in an
environment without a static (or DC) magnetic field, it is
sometimes called "
Any nucleus with more than one unpaired nuclear particle (protons or neutrons) will have a charge distribution which results in an electric quadrupole moment. Allowed nuclear energy levels are shifted unequally due to the interaction of the nuclear charge with an electric field gradient supplied by the non-uniform distribution electron density (e.g. from bonding electrons) and/or surrounding ions.
The NQR effect results when transitions
are induced between these nuclear levels by an externally
see also :
1. "Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance", T.P. Das and E.L. Hahn, Chapter in Solid State
Physics, Suppl.l, Academic Press, New York, 1958.
2. Abragam, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism, Clarendon Press, 1961
3. "Steady State Free Precession in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance," H.Y. Carr, Physical
Review, 112, 1693-1701, 1958.
4. "Nitrogen-14 NQR Study of Energetic Materials," R.A.Marino, R.F. Connors, and
L.Leonard (Block Engineering), Final Report to on U.S.Army Research Office
Contract DAAG29 79 C 0025, September 1982.
5. "Multiple Spin Echoes in Pure Quadrupole Resonance," R.A. Marino and S.M.
Klainer, Journal of Chemical Physics, 67,3388-3389, 1977.
6. "Explosives Detection by Pure 14N NQR", A.N. Garroway, J.B. Miller and M.L.
Buess, Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Explosive Detection
Technology, November 13-15,1991, Atlantic City, USA.
7. "Pulsed Spin Locking in Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance of 14N," D.Ya. Osokin,
Soviet Physics. JETP, 57(1), 69-71, 1983.
8. "Experimental Investigations of the Strong Off-Resonant Comb (SORC) Pulse
Sequence in 14N NQR," S.S.Kim, J.R.P.Jayakody, and R.A. Marino, Zeitshrift fur
Naturforschung, 47a, 415-420, 1992.
9. "Pulsed Fourier Transform NQR of 14N with a DC SQUID," M.D.Hurlimann,
C.H.Pennington, N.Q.Fan, J.Clarke, A.Pines, and E.L.Hahn, Physical Review Letters,
69, 684-687, 1992.
10. "SQUID Technology for Improved NMR/NQR Measurements Below 1MHz,"
Quantum Magnetics, Final Report on NSF Award 9160966, September 29, 1992.
11. "Librational Motion of Hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine Based on the Temperature
Dependence of Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectra: The
Relationship to Condensed-Phase Thermal Decomposition," R.J. Karpowicz and
T.B.Brill, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 87, 2109-2112, 1983.
12. "Detection of Explosives by Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)." A.N.
Garroway, J.B. Miller, J.P. Yesinowski, and M.L. Buess, Naval Research Laboratory,Final Report on Contract NEODTC N0464A92WR04515, FAA DTFA03-83-A-
00322, March 26 1993.
13. "Electronic Effects and Molecular Motion in ß-Octahydro-l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7- tetrazocine Based on 14N Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy,"
A.G.Landers, T.B.Brill, and R.A. Marino, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 85, 2618- 2643, 1981.
14. "Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance of Substituted Nitrobenzenes," S.N.Subbarao, E.G. Sauer, and P.J.Bray, Physics Letters, 42A, 461, 1973.
15. "Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study of Substituted Nitrobenzenes,"S.N. Subbarao and P.J.Bray, Journal of Chemical Physics, 67(9), 3947-55, 1977.
16. "14N and 39K Nuclear Quadrupole Coupling in KN03," T.J. Barstow and S.N.
Stewart, Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, 45a, 459-463, 1990.
17. "14N NQR Study of the Structural Phase Transitions in NH4NO3," J.Seliger, V.Zagar,
and RBlinc, Zeitschrift fur Physik B, Condensed Matter, 77, 439-443, 1989.
18. Private communication, R.A.Marino, Hunter College, CUNY, NY, September 1994.
19. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of 14N and 35C1 in Ammonium Perchlorate," T.J.
Barstow and S.N. Stewart, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 1,4649-4657,
20. "Nitrogen-14 and Nitrogen-15 Wide-Line NMR Studies of Nitrocellulose," R.A.
Marino, Final Technical Report for Task 7-09, Department of Army, 30 October
21. "Detection of NQR in Explosives," V.S. Grechishkin, Russian Journal of Physics,
35(7), English Pages 637-640, 1992. Translation of Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnyykh
Zavedenii, Fizika, No.7, pp.62-65, July 1992.
22. Private Communication, T.J. Rayner, July 1994.
23. "Engineering Design Handbook: Explosives Series, Properties of Explosives of
Military Interest," U.S. Army Materiel Command, January 1971.
Other Relevant QR Papers Not Referenced
1. "Detection of Explosives and Narcotics by Low Power Large Sample Volume
Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)", M.L. Buess, A.N. Garroway and J.B. Miller,
U.S. Patent 5206592..
2. "Detection of Explosives by Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance," M.L. Buess, J.B.
Miller, and A.N. Garroway, U.S. Patent 5233300.
3. "A Means for Removing Effects of Acoustic Ringing and Reducing the Temperature
Effects in the Detection of Explosives and Narcotics by Nuclear Quadrupole
Resonance," M.L. Buess, A.N. Garroway, and J.P. Yesinowski, Navy Case Number
74,325 (filed 30 Nov. 1992).
4. "Narcotics Detection using Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance," J. Shaw, Contraband
and Cargo Inspection Technology International Symposium, Washington D.C., 28-30
5. "A Search for NQR Signals in Heroin and Cocaine," R.A. Marino and J.R.P.
Jayakody, Final Technical Report on subcontract to Quantum Magnetics under US
Customs contract TC-91-031.
6. "NQR for Bomb Detection: Solution to the Plastics Problem ?" D. Noble, Analytical
Chemistry, 66 (5), 320A - 324A, March 1 1994.
7. "Explosives Detection by Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR)," A.N. Garroway,
M.L. Buess, J.P. Yesinowski, J.B.Miller, and R.A. Krauss, Report on results of
demonstration of prototype NQR explosives detector at FAA Technical Center in
8. "NQR Device for Detecting Plastic Explosives, Mines, and Drugs," V.S. Grechishkin,
Applied Physics, A55, 505-507, 1992.
9. "Short Range Remote NQR Measurments," T. Hirschfeld and S.M. Klainer, Journal
of Molecular Structure, 58, 63-77, 1980.
10. "A Pulsed NQR-FFT Spectrometer for Nitrogen-14," J.C.Harding, D.A.Wade, R.A.
Marino, E.G.Sauer, and S.M.Klainer, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 36,21-33,
11. "New Methods of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance," V.S. Grechishkin and N.Ja.
Sinjavsky, Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, 45a, 559, 1990.